Session

CCI definīcija

J. Heron, CCI definīcija. 1996.

Co-Counselling International (CCI) ir vispasaules apvienība, kura vieno cilvēkus un vietējos tīklus, kuri apņēmušies apliecināt atbalsta konsultēšanas (Co-Counselling) pamatdisciplīnu, starptautiski un vienoti sekmējot pamatotas teorijas un efektīvas prakses attīstību, tīklu izaugsmi un pasaules pārveidošanu.

Atbalsta konsultantu (co-counsellors) vietējie tīkli CCI ir neatkarīgas, pašpārvaldes līdzinieku organizācijas, kuras meklē veidus, kā kļūt par efektīvām sabiedriskām struktūrām, izvairoties no autoritāras kontroles jebkādā formā.

Ikviena persona un tīkls ir CCI biedrs, ja:

  1. saprot un piemēro turpmāk minētos atbalsta konsultēšanas principus
  2. CCI dalībnieka vadībā ir apguvuši vismaz 40 stundu mācību kursu
  3. teorētiski un praktiski saprot modeļu, izlādes un pārvērtēšanas idejas

Atbalsta konsultēšanas principi

  1. Atbalsta konsultēšanu parasti veic pāros, kur viena persona – klients – strādā, viena persona – konsultants – palīdz; tad viņi/viņas apmainās lomām. Katrā seansā katra persona vienlīdz ilgi ir klienta lomā un konsultanta lomā. Seanss parasti notiek vienā reizē, lai gan dažreiz cilvēki var mainīties klienta un konsultanta lomām dažādās reizēs.
  2. Kad atbalsta konsultanti strādā grupās ar trim vai vairāk dalībniekiem, dalībnieki vienlīdz ilgi ir klienta lomā; katrs klients vai nu izvēlas vienu personu, kas būs konsultants, vai arī strādā, pats sevi vadot, un grupa klusējot atbalsta viņu, sniedz uzmanību. Ja ir kāds īpašs mērķis, klients var lūgt divu vai vairāku konsultantu kopīgu iejaukšanos.
  3. Klients nosaka seansu vismaz septiņos veidos:
    1. uzticoties un ļaujoties dzīvajam atbrīvošanās procesam, kas viņā rodas
    2. seansa sākumā izvēloties vienu no trim līgumiem, kas minēti 9. punktā
    3. ar vienu no pirmajiem diviem līgumiem izvēloties, ar ko strādāt un kādā veidā
    4. izmantojot iespēju seansa laikā brīvi mainīt līgumu
    5. izmantojot tiesības pieņemt vai ignorēt konsultanta iejaukšanos
    6. uzņemoties atbildību par to, lai tiktu saglabāts uzmanības līdzsvars
    7. uzņemoties atbildību par to, lai darbs noritētu veidā, kas nekaitē ne pašam/pašai sev, ne konsultantam, ne citiem cilvēkiem vai videi
  4. Klienta darbs ir viņa(s) paša(s) dziļš process. Tas var ietvert, bet neaprobežojas ar:
    1. izlādi un pārvērtēšanu saistībā ar personisko distresu un kultūras uzspiestu rīcību
    2. priecāšanos par personiskajām stiprajām pusēm
    3. radošu domāšanu personiskās pārliecības robežās
    4. turpmāko personisko un kultūras stāvokļu iztēlošanos, lai izvirzītu mērķus un plānotu rīcību
    5. apziņas paplašināšanu par pārpersoniskajiem stāvokļiem

      CCI uzskata, ka pirmie minētie punkti ir stabils pamats pārējiem četriem.

  5. Konsultanta loma ir:
    1. visu laiku sniegt klientam pilnīgu, atbalstošu uzmanību
    2. iejaukties atbilstoši klienta izvēlētajam līgumam
    3. informēt klientu par laiku seansa beigās un jebkurā brīdī, kad klients to lūdz
    4. nekavējoties izbeigt seansu, ja klients sāk bezatbildīgi kaitēt sev, konsultantam, citiem cilvēkiem vai videi
  6. Konsultanta iejaukšanās ir uzvedība, kas atvieglo klienta darbu. Tā var būt verbāla un/vai neverbāla ar acu kontaktu, sejas izteiksmi, žestiem, stāju vai pieskārienu.

  7. Verbāla iejaukšanās ir praktisks ieteikums par to, ko klients var teikt vai darīt, lai pastiprinātu darba procesu seansā. Tā nav noteikta interpretācija vai analīze, un tā nav padomu došana. To nevirza konsultanta distress un tā nav kaitējoša vai uzbrūkoša. Tā atbrīvo klienta patstāvību un pašcieņu.

  8. Galvenais mērķis, kāpēc tiek izmantota neverbālā iejaukšanās, ir sniegt iedrošinošu un atbalstošu uzmanību bez distresa: būt blakus klientam veidā, kas apliecina un ļauj pilnībā raisīties sajūtām. Šis izmantojums ir pamatā visiem trijiem turpmāk minētajiem līgumiem. Neverbālo iejaukšanos var izmantot arī lai paplašinātu verbālo iejaukšanos; vai lai strādātu patstāvīgi, izsakot praktisku ierosinājumu; vai – attiecībā uz pieskārienu – lai atbrīvotu izlādi ar piemērotu pieskārienu, kustību vai masāžu.

  9. Līgums, ko klients izvēlas seansa sākumā, ir vienošanās par laiku un galvenokārt par iejaukšanās apjomu un veidu, ko konsultants izmantos. Šie trīs līgumu veidi ir:

    • Nedalīta uzmanība

    • Konsultants neveic verbālu iejaukšanos un izmanto tikai neverbālu iejaukšanos, lai sniegtu iedrošinošu, atbalstošu uzmanību. Klients strādā pilnībā pats savā vadībā, vadīdams savu darba procesu pats.

    • Parasta

    • Konsultants modri vēro, ko klients palaiž garām, un iejaucas jebkādā veidā, lai atvieglotu un pastiprinātu klienta darbu. Pastāv vienots līdzsvars starp klienta patstāvīgo vadību un konsultanta ierosinājumiem.

    • Padziļināta

    • Konsultants iejaucas tik daudz, cik viņam/viņai šķiet nepieciešams, lai klients varētu padziļināt un izturēt darba procesu, notur darba virzienu, pārtrauc modeļa veidošanu un atbrīvo izlādi. Tas var ietvert klienta vadīšanu, mudinot to strādāt jomās, kas ir izlaistas vai no kurām klients izvairās. Konsultants var uzņemties jūtīga, smalka un iedrošinoša vadītāja lomu.

  10. Konsultantiem ir tiesības pārtraukt klienta seansu, ja viņus pārāk spēcīgi restimulē tas, ar ko klients strādā un ja viņi tāpēc nevar saglabāt atbilstošu uzmanību. Ja tad, kad viņi to paskaidro klientam, klients turpina strādāt tādā pašā veidā, tad konsultantiem ir tiesības pilnībā pamest seansu.

  11. Viss, ar ko klients strādā seansā, ir konfidenciāls. Konsultants vai citi, kas sniedz uzmanību grupā, nekādā veidā un nekādos apstākļos neatsaucas uz to, ja vien klients nav devis viņiem skaidru, konkrētu atļauju uz to atsaukties. Taču konsultantam tas vajadzības gadījumā jāņem vērā turpmākajos seansos ar to pašu klientu.

© John Heron 1996. This Definition may be copied, but only in full and unedited. 

A Definition of Co-Counselling International - CCI

J. Heron, A Definition of Co-Counselling International - CCI, One to One, 1996.

CoCoInfo Tags: 

  • CCI
  • Session
  • Client In Charge
  • Session Contracts
  • Peerness

CCI is a planet-wide association of individuals and local networks committed to affirm a core discipline of co-counselling while encouraging, on an international and co-operative basis, the advancement of sound theory, effective practice, network development and planetary transformation. Local networks of co-counsellors within CCI are independent, self-governing peer organisations, exploring ways of being effective social structures while avoiding all forms of authoritarian control. Any person and network is a member of CCI if :

  1. they understand and apply the principles of co-counselling given below
  2. they have had at least 40 hours training from a member of CCI
  3. they grasp, in theory and practice, the ideas of pattern, discharge and re-evaluation

The Principles of Co-Counselling

  1. Co-counselling is usually practised in pairs with one person working, the client, one person facilitating, the counsellor, then they reverse these roles. In every session each person spends the same time in the role of both client and counsellor. A session is usually on the same occasion, although sometimes people may take turns as client and counsellor on different occasions.
  2. When co-counsellors work in groups of three or more, members take an equal time as client, each client either choosing one other person as counsellor, or working in a self-directing way with the silent, supportive attention of the group. For certain purposes, the client may request co-operative interventions by two or more counsellors.
  3. The client is in charge of their session in at least seven ways:
    1. trusting and following the living process of liberation emerging within
    2. choosing at the start of the session one of three contracts given in no. 9 below
    3. choosing within the first two contracts what to work on and how
    4. being free to change the contract during their session
    5. having a right to accept or disregard interventions made by the counsellor
    6. being responsible for keeping a balance of attention
    7. being responsible for working in a way that does not harm themselves, the counsellor, other people, or the environment
  4. The client's work is their own deep process. It may include, but is not restricted to:
    1. discharge and re-evaluation on personal distress and cultural oppression
    2. celebration of personal strengths
    3. creative thinking at the frontiers of personal belief
    4. visualising future personal and cultural states for goal-setting and action-planning
    5. extending consciousness into transpersonal states

    CCI takes the view that the first of these is a secure foundation for the other four.

  5. The role of the counsellor is to:
    1. give full, supportive attention to the client at all times
    2. intervene in accordance with the contract chosen by the client
    3. inform the client about time at the end of the session and whenever the client requests
    4. end the session immediately if the client becomes irresponsibly harmful to themselves, the counsellor, other people, or the environment
  6. The counsellor's intervention is a behaviour that facilitates the client's work. It may be verbal, and/or nonverbal through eye contact, facial expression, gesture, posture or touch.
  7. A verbal intervention is a practical suggestion about what the client may say or do as a way of enhancing their working process within the session. It is not a stated interpretation or analysis and does not give advice. It is not driven by counsellor distress and is not harmful or invasive. It liberates client autonomy and self-esteem.
  8. The main use of nonverbal interventions is to give sustained, supportive and distress-free attention: being present for the client in a way that affirms and enables full emergence. This use is the foundation of all three contracts given below. Nonverbal interventions can also be used to elaborate verbal interventions; or to work on their own in conveying a practical suggestion; or, in the case of touch, to release discharge through appropriate kinds of pressure, applied movement or massage.
  9. The contract which the client chooses at the start of the session is an agreement about time, and primarily about the range and type of intervention the counsellor will make. The three kinds of contract are:
    Free attention
    The counsellor makes no verbal interventions and only uses nonverbal interventions to give sustained, supportive attention. The client is entirely self-directing in managing their own working process.
    Normal
    The counsellor is alert to what the client misses and makes some interventions of either kind to facilitate and enhance what the client is working on. There is a co-operative balance between client self-direction and counsellor suggestions.
    Intensive
    The counsellor makes as many interventions as seem necessary to enable the client to deepen and sustain their process, hold a direction, interrupt a pattern and liberate discharge. This may include leading a client in working areas being omitted or avoided. The counsellor may take a sensitive, finely-tuned and sustained directive role.
  10. Counsellors have a right to interrupt a client's session if they are too heavily restimulated by what the client is working on and so cannot sustain effective attention. If, when they explain this to the client, the client continues to work in the same way, then they have a right to withdraw completely from the session.
  11. Whatever a client works on in a session is confidential. The counsellor, or others giving attention in a group, do not refer to it in any way in any context, unless the client has given them explicit, specific permission to do so. It is, however, to be taken into account, where relevant, by the counsellor in future sessions with the same client.

Catharsis in Psychotherapy

P. J. Hawkins, Catharsis in Psychotherapy, University of Durham, UK, Durham, 1986.

CoCoInfo Tags: 

  • Research
  • Cooperative Inquiry
  • Catharsis

The historical context of catharsis in psychotherapy is discussed, with particular reference to drama and ritual. 

The 'cathartic technique' of Freud and Breuer is then presented as part of the continuing development of approaches that advocate feeling-expression as a way of promoting personal change. The contemporary approaches considered include Reichean Therapy, bioenergetics, primal therapy, and re-evaluation counselling. Heron's theory of catharsis in human development is emphasized, and is central to the two experiential research enquiries presented later. 

The evidence for the efficacy of catharsis is reviewed from the perspective of the various 'schools' of emotionally-expressive therapy, and reference to the the psychosomatic and bereavement literature is also made. Two research enquiries are presented which investigate the effects of catharsis on human functioning.

A new paradigm experiential approach was adopted in which co-researchers engaged in a collaborative enquiry. 'Inside' measures of subjective experiencing, contingent upon emotional catharsis, were gathered through self-report, as well as 'outside' measures of blood pressure, pulse rate, and personality functioning.

Results suggest that physiologic tension decreases following somatic emotional catharsis, but that longer term changes in psycho-somatic functioning require the development of insight into the genesis of the 'symptom', as well as complementary therapeutic strategems. It is further suggested that the development of insight is contingent upon historical somatic catharsis.

The results also show that where cognitive catharsis occurs without affective release, in increase in psycho-physiologic tension is effected, as shown in both the physiological measures and subjective experiencing. Finally, the implications of catharsis for therapeutic practice are discussed.